CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY -III

Most commonly identified genetic mutations in those suffering from CPVT occur in -

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -A
The most commonly identified genetic mutation in CPVT is a mutation in the RYR2 gene that encodes the cardiac ryanodine receptor, responsible for releasing calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

TYPES OF CPVT AND ASSOCIATED GENE MUTATIONS

CPVT1: RYR2 mutations

CPVT2: CASQ2 mutations

CPVT3: TECRL encoding Trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like protein.

CPVT 4: CALM1 encoding Calmodulin

CPVT 5: TRDN encoding Triadin

All of the following are correct for CPVT -1 EXCEPT –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -C
Mutations in this RYR2 gene lead to an autosomal dominant form of CPVT known as CPVT1.

Which gene encodes Phospholamban ?

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -C
Phospholamban is a micropeptide protein. In humans Phospholamban is encoded by the PLN gene.

Mutations in this gene encoding phospholamban can cause -

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -B
Phospholamban is a micropeptide protein. In humans Phospholamban is encoded by the PLN gene. Mutations in phospholamban gene are a cause of inherited human dilated cardiomyopathy with refractory congestive heart failure

Which of the following is more sensitive index of cardiac function –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -D
More sensitive index of cardiac function is the ejection fraction. Ejection Fraction is calculated by ratio of stroke volume to end-diastolic volume (normal value = 67 ± 8%).

Best method to measure Ejection Fraction -

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -B
Cardiac MRI is now considered the best method to measure Ejection Fraction.

All of the following are determinants of Ventricular Preload EXCEPT –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -D

 

ANSWER -D

Ventricular Afterload Determinants -

  • Systemic vascular resistance
  • Elasticity of arterial tree
  • Arterial blood volume
  • Ventricular wall tension
  • Ventricular radius
  • Ventricular wall thickness

Ventricular Preload Determinants

  • Blood volume
  • Distribution of blood volume
  • Body position,
  • Intrathoracic pressure,
  • Intrapericardial pressure
  • Venous tone,

Pumping action of skeletal muscles

Bachmann's bundle conducts the impulse from –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -C
Bachmann's bundle or the interatrial band that conducts the impulse directly from the right atrium to the left atrium.

Thebesian veins drain into -

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -D
Thebesian veins drain directly into any of the four chambers of the heart.

Anatomic landmark between the coronary sinus and the great cardiac vein –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER -A
The Vieussens valve of the coronary sinus is a valve and anatomic landmark between the coronary sinus and the great cardiac vein.
Thebesian valve- The valve of the Coronary Sinus - medial to the inferior vena cava opening, just superior to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve.

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