Nutrition and Vitamins -II

What is the cause of Flushing in Niacin intake?

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The cause of flushing is elevation in prostaglandin GD2 (PGD2) and serotonin leading to blood vessel dilation. Niacin and nicotinamide (niacinamide) are identical in their vitamin activity.
Nicotinamide does not have the same pharmacological, lipid-modifying effects or side effects as niacin.
When niacin takes on the -amide group, it does not reduce cholesterol nor cause flushing.

Pellegra is seen in which of the following condition?

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Hartnup disease
Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting the absorption of nonpolar amino acids Like tryptophan.
Tryptophan- converted into serotonin, melatonin, and niacin.

Odor of Sweaty Feet is distinctive characteristic feature of -

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Isovaleric acidemia is a autosomal recessive metabolic disorder which disrupts or prevents normal metabolism of the branched-chain amino acid leucine.
A characteristic feature of isovaleric acidemia is a distinctive odor of sweaty feet.
This odor is caused by the buildup of a compound called isovaleric acid in affected individuals

The most reliable marker of biotin deficiency is increased excretion of ------------------------ in the urine

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Diagnostic tests for biotin deficiency
Diagnostic tests for biotin deficiency are urinary 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and biotin, and the status of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in lymphocytes.
The most reliable marker of biotin deficiency is increased excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid in the urine (over 195 micromol/24 hours).

In pellegra four Ds” refers to all EXCEPT:

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pellagra syndrome
The primary manifestations of pellagra syndrome are referred to as “the four Ds”:
dermatitis
diarrhea
dementia
death.
Diarrhea ,depression, seizures, and dementia are also part of the pellagra syndrome.


Which is correct for Casal’s necklace?
1. Seen in Early cases
2. Pigmentation Present
3. Scaling Present
4. Seen in skin areas exposed to sunlight

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Casal’s necklace
Casal’s necklace because it forms a ring around the neck; it is seen in advanced cases
Characteristic skin rash - pigmented and scaling, particularly in skin areas exposed to sunlight.

Treatment of pellagra consists of oral supplementation with .............. mg of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid three times daily for ........... days.

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Treatment of pellagra consists of oral supplementation with 100–200 mg of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid three times daily for 5 days.

All are True regarding Niacin induced flushing EXCEPT -

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Niacin induced Prostaglandin-mediated flushing due to binding of the vitamin to a G protein–coupled receptor
Niacin and nicotinamide (niacinamide) are identical in their vitamin activity,
nicotinamide - it does not reduce cholesterol nor cause flushing.


Nicotinamide is recommended as a treatment for niacin deficiency because it can be administered in remedial amounts without causing the flushing

Niacin induced Prostaglandin-mediated flushing starts in -

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Niacin induced Prostaglandin-mediated flushing always starts in the - Face


Which is TRUE among following ?
1. Maize is deficient in Niacin
2. Maize has biologically unavailable Niacin
3. Alkali treated Maize meal has no risk of Niacin deficiency

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Niacin in corn is biologically unavailable, and can be released only in very alkaline lime water of pH 11.
This explains why a Latin-American culture that used alkali-treated cornmeal to make tortilla was not at risk for niacin deficiency.