CARDIOLOGY

CARDIOLOGY

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Most common cause of death globally -

30% of deaths
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths. Of these more than three quarters are a result of coronary artery disease and stroke

healthy hearts have only -------------------- audible heart sounds

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Typically, healthy hearts have only two audible heart sounds, called S1 and S2. The first heart sound S1, is the sound created by the closing of the atrioventricular valves during ventricular contraction and is normally described as "lub". The second heart sound, S2, is the sound of the semilunar valves closing during ventricular diastole and is described as "dub"

Troponin is a sensitive biomarker for a heart with insufficient blood supply. It is released --------------------- after injury,

after injury, and usually peaks at about 12–24 hours.
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Troponin is a sensitive biomarker for a heart with insufficient blood supply. It is released 4–6 hours after injury, and usually peaks at about 12–24 hours. Two tests of troponin are often taken—one at the time of initial presentation, and another within 3–6 hours, with either a high level or a significant rise being diagnostic. A test for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) can be used to evaluate for the presence of heart failure

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