Nutrition and Vitamins

What is the Function of Thiamine ?

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- Function of Thiamine : decarboxylation of α-ketoacids. Ex : pyruvate α-ketoglutarate - Best-characterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. - Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) also called co-carboxylase - Thiamine Pyrophosphate acts as a coenzyme for a transketolase reaction that mediates the conversion of hexose and pentose phosphates. - Thiamine plays a role in peripheral nerve conduction

All of the following consumption in heavy amount may lower thiamine body stores EXCEPT:

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- Milled Rice and grains contain little thiamine. - Drinking large amounts of tea or coffee could lower thiamine body stores. - Tea, coffee (regular and decaffeinated) reduce thiamine levels - raw fish, and shellfish contain thiaminases, which can destroy the vitamin. - Primary food sources for thiamine include yeast, organ meat, pork, legumes, beef, whole grains, and nuts.

Thiamine stores are depleted after ----------- weeks of stopping intake.

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Thiamine stores are depleted -about 4 weeks after stopping intake.

Heart failure is commonly seen in which type of Beri Beri?

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Wet beriberi affects the heart and circulatory system. It causes heart failure. TYPES OF BERI BERI : Dry beriberi especially affects the peripheral nervous system. Wet beriberi especially affects the cardiovascular system and other bodily systems. Infantile beriberi affects the babies of malnourished mothers. Gastrointestinal beriberi affects the digestive system and other bodily systems.

All of the following seen in Thiamine deficiency EXCEPT :

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- High blood lactate. - Red blood cell transketolase activity is reduced in deficiency of thiamine. - The biochemical diagnostic criteria of thiamine deficiency consist of low ETKA (normal values range from 42.1 to 86.1 mµ/litre/min) and high TPPE (normal range 0-14%).

Increased thiamine depletion can result from all of the following the following EXCEPT :

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Increased thiamine depletion can result from the following : Diarrhea Diuretic therapies Peritoneal dialysis Hemodialysis Continuous renal replacement therapy Hyperemesis gravidarum Folate deficiency- causes an indirect thiamine deficiency, because thiamine is present but cannot be activated. Folic acid is essential to having enough dihydrofolate reductase to regenerate NADH from its oxidative form. This regeneration allows NADH to continue to be present to regenerate thiamine pyrophosphate without being consumed in the process.

Which of the following are correct for a patient of Infantile Beri Beri EXCEPT:

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Infantile beriberi occurs in infants aged 2-4 months who are fed only breast milk and whose mothers are thiamine deficient.

Thiamine is used as treatment in the following EXCEPT:
1. Beriberi
2. Wernicke encephalopathy
3. Maple syrup urine disease
4. Leigh syndrome
5. Carcinoid Syndrome

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Thiamine is used as treatment in the following - • Beriberi • Wernicke encephalopathy. • Maple syrup urine disease • Leigh syndrome.

Resting energy expenditure [REE] estimated by formula in assessing the energy needs of an individual -
1. Males: REE = 900 + 10n
2. Females: REE = 700 + 7n
3. ‘n’ is mass in kilograms
4. ‘n’ is year in years

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Answer – A 1,2,3 – correct Formulas for estimating REE are useful in assessing the energy needs of an individual- • Males: REE = 900 + 10n • Females: REE = 700 + 7n • ‘n’ is mass in kilograms Calculated REE is then adjusted for physical activity level by – multiplying by - • 1.2 for sedentary, • 1.4 for moderately active, • 1.8 for very active individuals.

For optimal health - which is correct option
1. Fat intake < 30% of calories.
2. Saturated fat and trans-fat should be limited to <20% of calories
3. Carbohydrates > 70% of calories
4. Polyunsaturated fats < 10% of calories

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Answer- D fat intake should total no more than 30% of calories. 45–65% of your daily calories from carbs, 20–35% from fats and 10–35% from protein.

Brain requires --------------- gram of glucose per day for metabolic activities.

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brain lacks fuel stores and hence requires a continuous supply of glucose. It consumes about 120 g daily, which corresponds to an energy input of about 420 kcal (1760 kJ), accounting for some 60% of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state. The brain requires around 100 g of glucose per day for metabolic activities. other tissues use glucose about 50 g/day.

Brain accounts for --------- % of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state.

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Brain accounts for some 60% of the utilization of glucose by the whole body in the resting state.

Which glucose transporter is a major Glucose transporter in neurons ?

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GLUT3 is considered the main but not the exclusive neuronal glucose transporter. GLUT3 has both a higher affinity for glucose than GLUT1, -2 or -4 and at least a fivefold greater transport capacity than GLUT1 and GLUT4, which is particularly significant for its role in neuronal glucose transport

Which is correct regarding energy provided by Ethanol ?

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Energy Provided by- Ethanol - 7 kcal/g. Fat - 9 kcal/g Carbohydrate - 4 kcal/g), Protein -4 kcal/g

Fever increases water losses by -

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Fever increases water losses by 200 mL/d per °C. With fever, each degree above 98.6°F [37°C] adds 2.5 mL/kg/d to insensible losses

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