BASIC CARDIOLOGY

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Most common causes of death in the world –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER-A
Cardiovascular disease constitutes 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% are due to heart attack and stroke. Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are the world’s biggest killers.

Which is the most deadly communicable disease worldwide –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER – D -LRI Lower respiratory infections were among the leading causes of death due to communicable diseases across all income groups.

Percentage of all deaths secondary to cardiovascular disease is –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER - B. Female > Male Percentage of all deaths secondary to cardiovascular disease is higher among women (43%) than among men (37%). Absolute number of deaths secondary to cardiovascular disease has declined over the past decades in men, this number has actually risen in women.

Exercise electrocardiography has a lower diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of epicardial obstruction in –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER- A Exercise electrocardiography has a lower diagnostic accuracy in the prediction of epicardial obstruction in women than in men.

The patient with following features belongs to which NYHA CLASS - • Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms • Asymptomatic at rest

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER-C - NYHA Class III New York Heart Association Functional Classification Class I No limitation of physical activity No symptoms with ordinary exertion Class II Slight limitation of physical activity Ordinary activity causes symptoms Class III Marked limitation of physical activity Less than ordinary activity causes symptoms Asymptomatic at rest Class IV Inability to carry out any physical activity without discomfort Symptoms at rest

Familial clustering of cardiovascular diseases is due to –

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ANSWER-D Familial clustering of cardiovascular diseases not only may occur on a genetic basis but also may be related to familial dietary or behavior patterns, such as excessive ingestion of salt or calories and cigarette smoking.

The most common birth defects are:

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER- A A congenital heart defect is a structural problem of the heart that develops during pregnancy. About 1 out of 100 babies are born with a congenital heart defect. congenital HD is the most common birth defect, affecting nearly 10 to 12 per 1000 liveborn infants (1%–1.2%)

Genetic or environmental cause can be identified in ………………. of congenital HD cases-

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER-C- 20-30% Epidemiological studies have suggested that a genetic or environmental cause can be identified in 20% to 30% of congenital HD cases. Single-gene disorders are found in 3% to 5%, gross chromosomal anomalies/aneuploidy in 8% to 10%, and pathogenic CNVs in 3% to 25% of those with congenital HD as part of a syndrome, and in 3% to 10% among those with isolated congenital HD.

Most common chromosome abnormality associated with congenital HD-

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER- C - Trisomy 21 Down syndrome is the most common aneuploidy and is usually caused by trisomy 21. It is also the most common chromosome abnormality associated with congenital HD.

Which is the most common aneuploidy –

Correct! Wrong!

ANSWER- C
Trisomy 21. Down syndrome The most common aneuploidy that infants can survive with is trisomy 21, which is found in Down syndrome, affecting 1 in 800 births. Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) affects 1 in 6,000 births. Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) affects 1 in 10,000 births.

BASIC CARDIOLOGY
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